Scientific Program

Day 1 :

  • Keynote Forum

Session Introduction

Jean Louis Nicolet

Plant Breeding Consultant, France

Title: Interspecific crossings: Learnings and perspectives
Speaker
Biography:

Nicolet Jean Louis has 40 years of experience in seed industry and vegetable breeding. He graduated as Agronomic Ingenior ENSA Montpellier in 1973.He has Experience of 41 years in Sluis & Goort then Syngenta and 15 years as crops manager.

Abstract:

As breeder for pepper and squash for Sluis & Groot, I realized 6 interspecific introgressions of several genes of resistance into commercial varieties. My targets were in pepper PMMV (TMV), TSW, Potyvirus, in squash Potyvirus (ZYMV, WMV), CMV, Powdery Mildew.  Most of these resistances are now standards in the market and used by all the community of breeders when relevant. Interspecific crossings are difficult to perform and barriers of sterility must be overcome. All the resistances mentioned above are under control of monogenic dominant gene. Why? Easier to track during the bridge process. These resistances have been challenged during these last 20-30 years leading to different situations. More surprising, some cases of genes interactions were discovered, unexpected pleiotropic effects appeared after combining “weak” genes. Introgression of interspecific traits into a cultivated species is one step. Another step is to create commercial products. The wild genes are coming surrounded by others inside the segment of introgression which could lead to deleterious effect. The story is different for each gene. The use molecular markers and gene sequencing change completely the approach of interspecific transfer of traits. Tracking the gene(s) via molecular markers during the bridge process (from F1 to BC2-3) simplify the operation. No need for phenotyping to follow the gene of interest. It opens the possibility to consider recessive genes and polygenic traits. The development of molecular markers inside the wild donor species is needed to use these markers. Highly density maps and “fine mapping” will help. But the segments of insertion and the expression of the genes in a very different background can still results into difficulties.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Farag Mohamed has years experience in Plant Pathology. He is currently working as a researcher in Plant Pathology Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt. He is in Cooperation with General Administration for training and Agriculture Extension in held training courses for Agricultural Extension agents in plant pathology field. He has an Excellent experience in conducting researches in induction and biological control in the field of plant disease.

Abstract:

Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L) is a root competitor weed that represents a major constraint for several crops production all over the world. Bindweed has adopted a parasitic lifestyle on pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L). Parasitic plants develop a multicellular infectious organ called a haustorium.  In March 2017. 42 samples were collected from Minia and Beni Suef governorates, Egypt and evaluated for their virulence against pepper plants. Pathogensity test were carried out in sids research station. These populations tested were able to attack the pepper roots (Balady variety) appearing polar and dwarf leaves compared to leaves of uninfected control plants. The histological structures of Convolvulus arvensis and pepper roots revealed that the vascular xylem of the bindweed primary and secondary haustoria eventually connected with phloem conducting elements of the host root. By use of the light microscope, boundary features of the penetration and connection of the secondary to the primary root (in healthy pepper plants) were compared histologically with those of the haustoria and the host root cells (in infected pepper plants). These findings are important in assessing the potential of the parasite as an agronomically significant pest in Egypt.

  • Crop Improvement

Session Introduction

Magdalena Zuk

University of Wroclaw, Poland

Title: Chalcone synthase gene engineering affect flax metabolism
Speaker
Biography:

Magdalena Zuk has completed her PhD at 2003 in Wroclaw University and work on diversification of secondary metabolites in crop plants (flax, potato).She use techniques of  molecular biology including gene isolation and expression analysis, protein expression and analysis, plant transformation and in vitro cultures, metabolite identification in particular focusing phenolic components by HPLC-MS analysis.  She`s foxused on biomedical application of flax by-products. She published more than 35 papers in reputed journals. Member of a board of Linum Foundation, a non-profit organization promoting pro-health use of a flax products.

Abstract:

Many biochemical pathways in plants show a tendency to be flexible and to be responsive to environmental changes. This is related to the fact that plants cannot avoid environmental stress. One of the best examples is the phenolics pathway.The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the key step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. Gene down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but flax growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure.

Since GM crops are rather scarcely accepted worldwide, several studies have proposed epigenetic modification, based on  the plant treatment with short oligonucleotide sequences (OLIGO) that are homologues to the gene of interest. In most cases OLIGO silences the target gene by interference but in few cases target gene activation was reported. The recent data suggests that OLIGO technology is effective in the analysis of gene function as well as in the generating new types of plants. OLIGOs technology was also effective in CHS engineering in flax

Speaker
Biography:

Jan szopa-skorkowski is currently working as Professor in Department of Biochemistry Genetic, University of Wrocław, Poland. Jan szopa-skorkowski international experience includes various programs, contributions and participation in different countries for diverse fields of study. His research interests reflect wide range of publications in various national and international journals.

Abstract:

Many biochemical pathways in plants show a tendency to be flexible and to be responsive to environmental changes. This is related to the fact that plants cannot avoid environmental stress. One of the best examples is the phenolics pathway.The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the key step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. Gene down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but flax growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure.

Since GM crops are rather scarcely accepted worldwide, several studies have proposed epigenetic modification, based on  the plant treatment with short oligonucleotide sequences (OLIGO) that are homologues to the gene of interest. In most cases OLIGO silences the target gene by interference but in few cases target gene activation was reported. The recent data suggests that OLIGO technology is effective in the analysis of gene function as well as in the generating new types of plants. OLIGOs technology was also effective in CHS engineering in flax

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Kausar Hussain Shah is involved in teaching and research at the Institute of Pure and Applied Biology (IP&AB), Bahauddin Zakariya University (BZU) Multan, Pakistan. He obtained his degree of MSc in Botany from IP&AB, BZU Multan, Pakistan; MPhil in Molecular Biology from CEMB, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan and PhD in Plant Biotechnology from IPS, BOKU University Vienna, Austria. His research interests include crop improvement by applying PGPR; Plant biotic/abiotic stress tolerance; Plant antimicrobial/ anti-cancerous/ insecticidal agents such as proteins/peptides; Molecular Plant-Microbe interaction; Genetic Engineering in Plants and Molecular-Farming.

Abstract:

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that can enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The potentiality of PGPR in agriculture is steadily increased as it offers an attractive way to replace the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other supplements. The objective of this study was to find the compatible PGPR strains for Chickpea crop, a major pulse crop in Pakistan. For this purpose, we focused on the photosynthesis and proteome analysis of PGPR treated and non-treated plants of chickpea. Three plant growth promoting Bacillus strains Sa-65, D-6 and Sa-65 were used to investigate their effects on growth, photosynthesis and proteome of five Chickpea varieties namely Pb-1, Padir-19, CM-2008, K-01019 and 01004. The results showed that variety K-01019 grown under controlled condition was best in growth as compared to other four varieties. It was observed that the application of PGPR strain K-39 significantly increased the fresh and dry biomass of variety Pb-1. Strain D-6 showed better results in term of increased growth in variety CM-2008. The chlorophyll transients showed that there is a slight decrease in the fluorescence of K-39 treated plants of variety Pb-1. In variety Padir-19 the decrease in fluorescence was recorded in plants treated with K-39 and D-6 strains. These results suggested that the strain K-39 and D-6 were found to be more efficient for growth promotion of different varieties of Chickpea as compared to strain Sa-65. Furthermore, differential protein bands of approximately 150 and 20 KDa were observed in K-39 treated plants of varieties Pb-1 and CM-2008 which were not present in controls of respective varieties. This study provides useful tool to improve growth of Chickpea crop by applying PGPR strains K-39 and D-6.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr Muhammad Jaffer Ali has her expertise in evaluation and QTL-alleles detection conferring soybean seed-flooding tolerance in soybean. His method of seed-flooding tolerance evaluation is superior to the already used methodologies for evaluating the seed-flooding tolerance. He has successfully performed Genome-wide Association studies of the seed-flooding tolerance gene system by using new methodology and indicators evaluated in his previous research. The method seems to be successful and more efficient than the previous petri dish and towel methods. He is currently devising the method to explore the adaptation potential of the soybean in the Punjab regions of the Pakistan.

Abstract:

The experiments concluded 48hrs for germination testing as most appropriate stress duration. Using paper roll for recording the traits was the best method than petri dish and towel method. Among the traits relative germination rate (RGR), relative seedling length (RSL), relative root length (RRL), relative root fresh weight (RRFW) and relative root dry weight (RRDW) were proved to be flooding-responsive. RSL was chosen as the major seed-flooding indicator due to higher heritability (h2), genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), correlation with other indicators and easier measuring procedure, while RRL was
considered as the subsidiary indicator. Thus, the RSL in paper roll after 48hrs seed-flooding was recognized as standard seed-flooding testing procedure and used to evaluate breeding materials. Among the 11 cultivars, the superior seed-flooding tolerant ones were M8206, NN1138-2 and ZXD, while ten best lines were evaluated from one hundred breeding lines.

  • Plant Breeding | Tissue Culture in Plants

Session Introduction

Dalal Al Baijan

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait

Title: A simple and cost effective micropropagation system for stevia clonal plant production.
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Stevia rebaundiana, commonly known as ‘sweet leaf’ or ‘sugar leaf’, is a herbaceous perennial belonging to the family Asteraceae.  Due to the presence of a sweet tasting glycoside, it is commonly used by diabetic patients as a low calorie sweetener and as an antioxidant in treatment of cancer and heart diseases. Propagation of this plant species is through seeds or vegetative cuttings. Micropropagation of stevia has been applied to overcome poor seed germination rate, variability in sweetness, and to meet the requirement of large number of healthy plantlets for the uniform growth and establishment of commercial plantations. The main objective of this study was to develop a simple and cost effective clonal plant production in Stevia. The literature review on micropropagation of stevia showed the utilization of growth hormones in the culture media. We have developed a simple protocol using growth hormone-free MS culture media for the regeneration and multiplication for Stevia. The stem nodal segments and shoot tip explants of selected stevia plant were isolated and surface sterilized using commercial Clorox containing 1.25% sodium hypochlorite. The sterile shoot tip and stem nodal segment explants were inoculated into the MS culture medium without any plant growth hormones. All of the cultures were maintained for a week time under total dark at 25±1ŸC. After a week, all of the cultures were transferred to the growth room under 16 h light and 8 h dark at 25±1ŸC culture condition. All of the cultures were subcultured in the same culture media once in 20 days. The shoot tip explant elongated into a single plantlet with roots and the nodal segments produced multiple shoots within 30 d. The micro-shoot multiplication of stem nodal segment was at the rate of 20/segment/30d duration. Within 6 m duration, about 75,000 plantlets were produced starting from a single nodal segment. All of the plantlets produced adventitious roots in the same culture media after 10 d duration and acclimatized using photoautotrophic culture system for 100% survival during the greenhouse hardening. The plants produced by our system showed uniform growth and high yield in the protected environment as well as in the open field. This micropropagation system is highly cost effective and can be used in commercial stevia plantations for more economic returns.

Speaker
Biography:

Mr Tiwari has been serving as Senior Scientist in Plant Breeding and Genetics under Nepal Agricultural Research Council. He is actively working in rice breeding for varietal improvement. His major focus on research is in abiotic stress tolerance in rice as well as contributed significantly to the breeding rice for upland and rainfed environments. He is also involved in the development of hybrid rice using heterosis breeding. He has adequate knowledge and skill in quantitative genetics and statistical plant breeding methods. He has been emphasizing on delivery of high yielding and stress tolerant cultivars for the flood prone and drought affected areas.

Abstract:

Genetic variability is the fundamental requirement of any crop breeding program to develop superior cultivars. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic variability and find out the correlation among the different quantitative traits of early rice under rainfed lowland environments. The experiment was conducted during 2015 and 2016 wet season across the four locations namely Hardinath, Dhanusha, Khajura, Banke, Rampur, Chitwan and Bhairahawa, Rupendehi. Seven genotypes including Hardinath-1 as standard check variety were evaluated in the randomized complete block design with three replications. Several quantitative traits such as days to heading and maturity, plant height, 1000 grain weight, tillers per square meters and grain yield were measured to investigate the variability. Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental components of variance were computed to contrast the variability among the tested genotypes. All the genotypes and locations showed significant variability for all the traits studied. Similarly, genotype x environment interaction effects was also found highly significant except for the days to maturity. Genotypic coefficient of variation was lower than phenotypic coefficient of variation for all traits studied. The magnitudes of genotypic coefficient of variations were relatively higher for grain yield, 1000 grain weight and days to heading. The genotypic coefficient of variation was in the range of 0.7% to 12.86%. Heritability also ranges from 16% to 93.5% with high broad sense heritability of 93.5% was recorded from days to maturity and lowest heritability of 16% was observed in plant height which indicated the presence of additive gene effects. Positive and highest genetic correlations were found between days to heading and days to maturity (r=0.9999**), days to heading and grain yield (r=0.9999**), days to maturity and plant height (r=0.9999**). However, negative and highest correlation was observed between plant height and 1000 grain weight (r=0.9999**) followed by tillers and 1000 grain weight (0.3028**). Thus results indicated that days to heading, maturity, grain yield, and plant height are identified as selection criteria for obtaining stable and high yielding early rice genotypes under rainfed environments. Dendrogram and PCA clearly visualized the traits broadly into two clusters in which thousand grain weight into one and rest of the other traits come under separate cluster

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. M R Meena, Scientist (Sr.Scale) of Plant Breeding in the Department of Crop Improvement, ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre, Karnal. He has received my BSc in Agricultural Sciences from RAU, Bikaner in 2002 and MSc in Genetics and Plant Breeding from University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in 2004-05. He also received PhD in Genetics at the Department of Genetics in the ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi in 2009.

Abstract:

In the study, three groups of Saccharum hybrids derived from diverse genetic background involving alien species and genera were used to evaluate their biomass potential under sub—tropical climate of India. First group hybrids- includes nine inter-generic hybrid (IGH) involving alien genus Erianthus arundinaceous.  Second group hybrid – includes nine inter- specific hybrids (ISH) derived from S. barberi (Indian cane) and S. sinense (Chinese cane) and third group hybrid- includes six interspecific hybrids involving S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum. These 24 clones were evaluated along with four commercial checks viz., Co 0238, CoJ 64 (early standard), CoS 767 and CoS 8436 (midlate standard) during 2013-14 in a randomized block design with two replications. Data on juice brix %, sucrose % and purity % and fibre% were estimated as per standard procedures. Dry matter, fresh biomass yield and dry biomass yield were estimated. The result of study indicated that Saccharum hybrid generally has more biomass potential compared to commercial varieties. Thirteen of the hybrids recorded significantly higher dry biomass yield than the experimental mean of 28.97 t ha-1. Among first group inter-generic hybrids, three hybrids viz., GU 07- 3849 (49.23 t ha-1), GU 07-3730 (37.96 t ha-1) and GU 07-3764 (37.54 t ha-1) had significantly higher value (over general mean) due to their Erianthus genetic background. Two ISH hybrid viz., KGS 2004-48 (41.69 t ha-1) and KGS 2004-60 (39.05 t ha-1) derived from BC progenies of S. barberi and S. sinense, recorded higher biomass. In ISH hybrids with S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum genetics background, hybrids 99-438 (37.81 t ha-1) and 99-81 (37.22 t ha-1) had higher dry biomass production. Fibre% had positive correlation with total dry matter (TDM) and TDM, fresh biomass, stalk weight and number were found positively correlated with dry biomass.

  • Cereal Genomics

Session Introduction

Abiyot Lemma

The Japan Tobacco International Ethiopia, Ethiopia

Title: Response of Improved Durum Wheat (Triticum durum L.) Varieties to Wheat Stem Rust in Central Ethiopia
Speaker
Biography:

Abiyot Lemma Gutema, B.Sc. in Dryland Crop Scinces and M.Sc. in Plant Pathology has an experience of working as Agricultural Technical Vocational Education Training College Instructor; as Highland Cereal, Pulses & oil seed crops Production farm head; as Pathologist researcher in the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research & Sugar Corporation, and He is currently working as Agricultural Training Expert in the Japan Tobacco International Ethiopia (the then National Tobacco International S/C, Ethiopia.

Abstract:

Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici is amongst the biotic factors which causes up to 100% yield loss during epidemic years. Therefore, the present study was carried out to observe the reaction of improved durum wheat varieties to virulent stem rust isolates at seedling growth stage and to stem rust population at adult growth stages. The finding of this experimental study was based on isolation and multiplication of virulent races of P. graminis, then ten durum wheat varieties including the susceptible check morocco were tested for the virulent isolates at seedling growth stage; and the reaction of these varieties under natural field conditions were evaluated in the Eastern and Western Showa of Central Ethiopia at adult growth stages. At seedling growth stage, 60% of varieties tested with the virulent stem rust isolate from Debrezeit exhibited resistance, while all varieties were resistant to Ambo isolate. Ten durum wheat varieties evaluated at adult plant growth stage to stem rust population of Debrezeit (Eastern Showa) showed severities of 20S in the variety Geredo to 70S in the variety Foka, while at Ambo (Western Showa) only the susceptible check, Morocco was infected up to 20S. The result indicated that stem rust from Debrezeit was virulent to durum wheat varieties as compared to the Ambo population

  • Plant Pest Management

Session Introduction

Ikramullah Khan

Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences China

Title: Spread Of Noxious Weed Seeds Through Domesticated Animals And Fodder
Speaker
Biography:

Prof. Dr. Ikramullah Khan is a Research Scientist, Kunming Institute of Botany, KIB, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, China.He is a Project Director at Establishment of Botanical Garden and Climate Change Research Centre, Pabbi, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan .He is also a Chairman of Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.He serves as a Director of Abdul Wali Khan University Botanical Garden, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan

Abstract:

Globalization of trade brings many improvements to lifestyle, but there are some drawbacks. For example, the increased transport of animals internationally, along with food grain, seed and feed lots has increased the unintentional spread of weeds, nationally and internationally. Domesticated animals feed on weed-infested pastures, they too can carry weed seeds, either with in their gut or on their coat, and these seeds can be transported over short or long distances. In this regard, a study was conducted in Queensland to see the spread of weed seeds through domesticated animals and fodder. Large numbers of germinable weed seeds were found in domesticated animal dung and therefore many weed species are thought to be spreading through dung in Queensland, Australia. Dry and fresh dung samples contained an average of 287 and 262 germinable weed seeds kg-1, respectively, which came from 55 species and represented 20 families. In addition, noxious weed seeds (e.g. parthenium weed) were identified in both dry and fresh sample of dung from one location (Clermont) in May 2010, when the plants were mature and shedding seeds. The same is also true for certain kinds of baled fodder (i.e. lucerne (Medicago sativa) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) in Queensland, in which the majority of the species found were introduced or alien to those regions. Therefore, weed seeds spread and invasion of alien weeds through these vectors needs to be prevented, to save the agricultural and indigenous biodiversity.

Day 2 :